Question 1 [5 marks]

1.1 Explain how syntax shapes programming languages. Give examples of how syntax rules impact language usage. (3 marks)

1.2 Differentiate between compilers and interpreters for program translation and execution. Highlight the unique features and benefits of each approach. (2 marks)

Question 2 [17 marks] The following information applies ONLY for question 2.1
Apply your understanding of procedural programming to solve the following problem: You are tasked with creating a program that calculates the net salary of an employee based on the gross salary and applicable deductions.
Design a procedural program that takes the gross salary as input and uses the following rule to calculate the net salary:
• Deduct 10% of the gross salary. PAYE rate =0.10.

2.1 Design a procedure or method named calculate Net Salary that implements this rule and returns the net salary. Provide the steps you would follow, including defining variables, calling the procedure/method to perform calculations, and displaying the results. (3 marks)

2.2 Explain the concept of procedures/methods and how they contribute to the organization and readability of the program. (2 marks)

2.3 Explain the concepts of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism in Java and how they contribute to code organization and management. Provide a real-world analogy to illustrate its significance. (12 marks)

Question 3 [14 marks] Code snippet:
int roomNumber = 79;

float temperatureValue = 28.5;
boolean isItTrue = false;

char gradeInMaths = ‘A’;

3.1 Describe the purpose and data types of the variables declared in the provided Java code snippet above. (9 marks)

3.2 Explain how these variables store different types of information and how they contribute to the flexibility and precision of data handling in Java. (5 marks)

Question 4 [25 marks]

The code snippets (program statements) below are out of order. You should use three curly brackets for the opening and three curly brackets for the closing. To open and close a class or method, you must use only the number of curly brackets provided.

4.1 Apply your understanding of Java programming concepts to organize the provided code snippets into a coherent class structure. Ensure that the class includes appropriate methods and statements based ONLY on the given information. (15 marks)

The working program displays instructions for changing a flat tire, printing the heading
“Instructions for changing a flat tire” and then calling a method to print the instructions.

1. System.out.println(“Prepare the car ”);
2. System.out.println(“Position the wheel chocks ”);
3. System.out.println(“Loosen the wheel nuts”);
4. System.out.println(“Jack the car up”);
5. System.out.println(“Remove the flat tyre”);
6. System.out.println(“Mount the spare wheel”);
7. System.out.println(“Lower the car and tighten the bolts”);
8. System.out.println(“Fully lower the car”);
9. public static void changeTyre()
10. public class TyreChanging
11. public static void main(String[] args)
12. {
13. {
14. {
15. changeTyre();
16. System.out.println(“Instructions to change a flat tyre”);
17. }//end class

18. }//function or method
19. }//end main method

4.2 Explain the purpose and structure of the given Java method: public static double calculate Square Area(double length, double breadth). (3 marks)

4.3 Describe how the method calculates and returns the area of a square using the provided input parameters. (4 marks)

4.4 Provide an example scenario where this method could be utilized within a larger
Java program. (3 marks)

Question 5 [39 marks]

You are a software developer working for a fintech company that specializes in creating innovative financial software solutions. One of your tasks involves developing a Java program to handle various financial calculations for the company’s clients. As part of this project, you need to implement specific methods that return values, overload certain methods for enhanced functionality, and ensure that there is no ambiguity in the program’s execution.

The financial software you are developing needs to handle multiple types of financial transactions, including calculating interest for different types of accounts. You are tasked with implementing a Java program that includes a class called “InterestCalculator” to handle these calculations.

1. Create a method named “calculateSimpleInterest” within the “InterestCalculator” class that takes in the principal amount, interest rate, and time period as parameters and returns the simple interest calculated using the formula:

simple interest = (principal_amount * interest_rate * time_period) / 100.

The method should be accessible outside the class.

2. Overload the “calculate Simple Interest” method by creating a new method with the same name but different parameters. This new method should accept the principal amount and interest rate as parameters and return the simple interest for a default time period of 1 year.

3. Develop a method named “calculate Compound Interest” within the “Interest Calculator” class that takes in the principal amount, interest rate, time period, and frequency of compounding as parameters.

The method should return the compound interest calculated using the formula:

compound interest = principal_amount * (1 + interest_rate/frequency_of_compounding) ^ (frequency_of_compounding * time_period) – principal_amount.

NB. Use the Java statement,
double compound Interest = principal Amount * (Math.pow(1 + interest Rate / frequency Of Compounding, frequency Of Compounding * time Period)) – principal Amount;

4. To avoid ambiguity in the program, ensure that method names are clear and distinct and that the parameters in each method are appropriately defined and utilized.

5.1 Write the complete Java program for the “Interest Calculator” class and demonstrate the usage of each method in a main method. Ensure that the program demonstrates the ability to calculate both simple and compound interest accurately and without any ambiguity in the results. Also, provide comments to explain the purpose and functionality of each method within the program. (39 marks)

Answers to Above Questions on System Development

Answer 1: The rule of Syntax is crucial in saving the programming language because it helps in defining the rules that indicates the ways in which programs written in the language should be structured and formatted. There are different types of Syntax shapes programming languages and these include statement structure, variable declarations, functions definition, conditional statement, loop constructs, error handling, object oriented features etc.


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