There are two ways in which to look at global culture. One is to consider cultural diversity—how cultures of the world vary—to appreciate each for what it offers to enrich people’s experience of the world and understand the world from another person’s point of view. Cultural diversity enriches our experiences within the world and within societies. People have moved foods, clothing, music, and their values and lifestyles through trade, migration, and travel for millennia. Cities are hubs for these interactions. Nearly every city in the world offers a taste of the diversity of global cultures. Ironically, as cities become more diverse, they become more alike in their diversity. (Chirico. J. 2018).
In an essay, discuss the global cultural representations at the Commonwealth Games- Birmingham 2022. Consider Appadurai’s five distinct global scapes in your response. (15 marks)
Read the following extract and answer the question to follow:
Based on the work of Karl Marx, conflict theorists center their analyses on the competition for and differences in power. Marx’s focus was economic history—historical materialism—or how power in society derives from a person’s relationship to productive processes. But productive forces change, and new ones inevitably emerge. Power shifts from one group to a newly formed group as social structure change. (Chirico. J, 2018).
In an essay, comment on how Marx’s conflict theory viewed social change in Africa Communities (15 marks)
Income and wealth focus attention on the prosperity of the world as a whole and the inequalities in income and wealth among regions, countries, and individuals. Inequalities of income and wealth would not be important if they did not affect the quality of people’s lives and affect their life chances and well-being. But they do. The society into which a person is born, and its level of wealth and inequality have a profound impact on the person’s life. (Chirico, J, 2018).
Examine the connection between wealth and global poverty in developing nations in a comparison essay.
The growing prevalence of obesity has put pressure on healthcare systems worldwide. Analyse the reasons why obesity is viewed as a global health issue. (10 marks)
Agriculture is not only dependent on biodiversity, freshwater, a reliable climate, and adequate nitrogen, phosphorous and other essential elements, but is also a significant driver of negative change in Earth systems. Industrialized agriculture, which is highly reliant on external inputs, contributes to chemical pollution through the use of pesticides and herbicides, changes nitrogen and phosphorous cycles through the addition of synthetic fertilizers, and typically relies on irrigation, thereby impacting freshwater stocks. It is also energy intensive, emitting almost one- third of all greenhouse gases, including methane, thereby contributing to climate change. Although the incidence of hunger has declined over the last decade through increased food production, this has been at a significant environmental cost. Furthermore, hunger is on the rise again, affecting 815 million people in 2016 largely due to the proliferation of violent conflict and climate-related shocks, which industrial agricultural production is unable to counter. ndustrial farming has led to increased focus on just a few energy-rich but micronutrient-poor staple crops, and the incidence of noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes caused through increased consumption of these so-called “empty calories” has become a leading cause of global mortality.
Agrobiodiversity, a critical contributor for healthy people and ecosystems, has been eroded and the innovative potential of underutilized species has been largely ignored. Moreover, the livelihoods of many farmers remain precarious, with export-led economic models reducing imperatives for national food security, devaluing the role of farmers, and imposing inappropriate agricultural production approaches on small-scale farmers.
Extract: Pereira, L., Wynberg, R. and Reis, Y., 2018. Agroecology: The future of sustainable farming?. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 60(4), pp.4-17.
3.1 In an essay, comment on the promotion of sustainable agriculture and agroecology. Your response should include the establishment of small-scale farming that contributes to sustainability. (20 marks)
Racial/ethnic minorities suffer disproportionate morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. US racial/ethnic health disparities are a consequence of several factors including the disproportionate prevalence of less healthy lifestyles, low socioeconomic status, resource poor neighbourhood environments, and poorer access to care. Another factor is the poorer care received by minority patients after they enter the health care system. The 2005 National Healthcare Disparities Report indicated that White patients receive better quality of care than 53% of Hispanic, 43% of African American, 38% of American Indian/Alaska Native, and 22% of Asian and Pacific Islander patients.1 An updated report in 2010 showed no changes in disparities in 30 of 41 quality core measures for Hispanics, 40 of 47 measures for African Americans, 13 of 19 measures for Asians, and 15 of 22 measures for American Indian or Alaska Natives compared with Non-Hispanic Whites.
Shavers, V.L., Fagan, P., Jones, D., Klein, W.M., Boyington, J., Moten, C. and Rorie, E., 2012. The state of research on racial/ethnic discrimination in the receipt of health care. American journal of public health, 102(5): 953-966. Retrieved from https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdfplus/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300773 [Accessed 06 December 2021].
4.1 In an essay response, highlight the social impact on the discrimination in health care. By using Goffman’s theory of social stigma, recommend strategies to address this issue. (20 marks).
Answers to Above Questions on Sociology
The entire world is highly integrated and all thanks to technology that allows people from different countries to take their culture from one country to another. The world is so highly integrated that it allows sharing of values and beliefs among people from different countries. One such example of global culture is evident in respect to the Commonwealth games that was held in Birmingham in 2022. There were around 72 Nations that participated in such games and it was underpinned by the values of humanity, equality and destiny. This global representation in the Commonwealth games can be better understood by applying Appadurai’s five distinct global scapes.
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