Question 1 (Marks: 20)
A large majority of South Africans live in low-income households in impoverished communities with limited access to healthcare. Discuss four prevalent teratogens in the South Africa’s socio-economic context. Provide context for these, with at least two academic journal articles.

Question 2 (Marks: 50)
You have been employed as a Developmental Psychology specialist in the neonatal ward of a government hospital and tasked with creating a post-partum support programme for mother and fathers of newborn babies delivered at the hospital. Write an in-depth guide on the support and resources that will be required to mitigate risk and build resilience. In this discussion you will include:

• An in-depth discussion on identifying at-risk newborns (10).
• Factors that contribute to a positive birthing experience for the mother decreasing the risk for post-partum depression (10).
• Factors that contribute to a positive birthing experience for the father (10).
• Factors that will decrease the effects of potential risks and complications and increase resilience in the birth process (10).
• Examples of how the neo-natal ward could go about this in the programme (10).

Question 3 (Marks: 30)
Developing countries usually share similar social and economic challenges, especially if the country’s population is more diverse in nature. Tawuran is a form of mass fighting that occurs on the streets of Jakarta, in Indonesia. These high school brawls are fuelled by a deeply embedded culture of patriarchy which leads to high school students risking injury and sometimes death.

After studying the Al Jazeera investigative reports below, provide an explanation for how the theories below would account for this phenomenon. Explain the theory briefly and demonstrate how it would account for the problem of Jakarta’s school Brawls.

Note: The videos contain some sensitive and violent imagery regarding the Tawuran and have been included for educational purposes only.

1. 101 East: Jakarta School Brawl

2. Al Jazeera. (2017, March 24). Jakarta School Brawl 101 East [Video]. YouTube.

• Bioecological Model/Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner) (15)
• Cognitive Development Theory/Constructivism (Piaget) (15)

Answers to Above Questions on Developmental Psychology

Answer 1: Access to a sound health care system is highly essential in every economy to achieve a better standard of living and performance. In the case of South African economy, the majority of the population live in low-income households in  impoverished communities with limited access to healthcare. There are many teratogens in the South African economy that contribute towards such inadequate access to the health care system. One such major teratogen is the South African history that leaves large racial disparities in access despite post apartheidhealth policy. Another major teratogen is …..

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