Question 1 (Marks: 30)

Q.1.1 Much criticism has been raised on the Behaviourist perspective as being focused mainly on observable behaviour – the emphasis is on the external observation rather than the internal processes underlying the observed behaviour. In an attempt to bridge the gap between observable behaviour and internal processes, the cognitive approach to understanding human behaviour originated (Castle & Buckler, 2018).

The cognitive psychology approach often refers to the “brain – computer” analogy (Castle & Buckler, 2018).

Often, attention to these hidden processes can reveal ways to promote lasting learning in the classroom environment (Agarwal & Roediger, 2018).

(1.1.1) Describe what is meant by the “brain-computer” analogy. Use an appropriate example to illustrate this analogy that relates to the educational context. (15)

(1.1.2) As a future teacher, envision (create) a scenario in which you illustrate that attention to the internal “hidden” processes may reveal ways to assist you as a teacher to promote lasting learning in the classroom. (15)

(Your scenario may be a simulated event in a classroom or may be a scenario that you have witnessed, either in your school setting or in your current class as a Bachelor of Education student).

You should use other sources in addition to your prescribed texts to assist you in answering this question, however pay attention to in-text referencing and use credible academic sources.

Question 2 (Marks: 40)


Q.2.1.1 Consider the following scenario:

You are a teacher at a local school, situated in a low income, and challenged socio-economic area. It is the end of the 1st term, and you are finalising your class’s progress reports. A parent of one of your learners contacts you and requests a meeting with you to discuss the comments you made on their son’s progress report. During the meeting, the parent mentions that you commented “he struggles to make friends and has difficulty maintaining friendships”. The parent asks you to explain what you mean by this statement.

Explain Maslow’s Theory on the hierarchy of needs to the parents, using your own words. Then, describe your role as a teacher in supporting the child to develop a sense of belonging at school and how you can support his relational development within the school context. (20)

Q.2.1.2 Carl Rogers (1902-1987), together with Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) focused their work on the development of human potential, however their theories differ in certain aspects (Castle & Buckler, 2018).

Define Carl Roger’s (1902-1987), theory in your own words. Then, highlight the main differences between Carl Roger’s (1902-1987), and Abraham Maslow’s theories (1908-1970).

Formulate your answer in a clear and neat table format. Consult additional academic sources, in addition to your textbook for information, however the sources must be credible and accurately referenced, both in-text and in the reference list. (20)

Question 3 (Marks: 30) Q.3.1 The Humanistic perspective as emphasised by the work of Carl Rogers (1902-1987) and
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) prepared the way for a positive approach to mental wellbeing. This positive approach to individuals aims to enable positive attributes in individuals and to further enhance existing strengths.

CHOOSE EITHER Question 3.1.1 or Question 3.1.2, not BOTH.

Q.3.1.1 In the form of a formal essay, discuss Positive Psychology as an approach to understanding human behaviour. In your essay, include the following discussion points:

– Define Positive Psychology.

– Explain the origins of Positive Psychology, with specific reference to early research and the progression to current research.
– Name and describe the three pillars of Positive Psychology and discuss these pillars as foundations for future research in the field.
– Five marks will be awarded for essay structure.

Your essay should reflect the format of a formal essay with a clear introduction, body and conclusion. Ensure that you make use of credible (30)

academic sources and to reference correctly throughout your essay. The essay should be between 800-1000 words. Pay attention to your academic writing standard.

Your answer should show evidence of research from at least TWO academic sources IN ADDITION to your prescribed textbook.

Q.3.1.2 Positive Psychology is advocated as a significant approach for children’s future development – with specific reference to building children’s inherent positive attributes and virtues (Castle & Buckler, 2018).

Write an essay in which you argue why Positive Psychology is significant in developing children’s inner strengths, within the school context. Refer to the following in your essay:

School based research within the field of Positive Psychology.

• The four strands that united research into the development of children’s innate strengths and virtues.
• Conclude with an example on how schools may enhance children’s wellbeing in general.
• Comment on the approach followed in your school setting and whether you believe it to have been to your advantage in terms of your general wellbeing as a learner.

Your essay should reflect a neat and well formulated argumentative essay with a clear introduction, body, and conclusion. Your essay should reflect your position on why Positive Psychology is significant in the school context
– or not. (30)

Ensure that you make use of credible academic sources and to reference correctly throughout your essay. The essay should be between 800-1000 words. Pay attention to your academic writing standard. Your answer should show evidence of research from at least TWO academic sources IN ADDITION to your prescribed text.

Answers to Above Questions on Psychology

Answer 1: The brain computer analogy is defined as the process in which the human brain functions similar to that of a computer in processing information, storing and performing tasks. This implies that the brain works as the hardware of a computer whereas the cognitive process is defined as the software programs that are responsible for running a computer.

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