1. Kingman’s Equation has been called ‘The Equation of Lean’. SEE below graph for all questions

a. SANRAL have been tasked to improve the number of cars travelling from Johannesburg to Pretoria ( and vice versa). Using the Kingman Equation and the diagram below , describe the equation and what it means. Additionally explain at least 5 options SANRAL could consider and the potential thereof. For the 5 options describe the various curves and how to get onto the most optimal curve. What are the trade-offs or techniques to mitigate these. (max 750 words)

b. Switzerland has fewer but longer trains as they claim this would increase punctuality and decrease delays? Explain this using the triangle of basic choices below. What would be compromised by following this approach? (Max 750 words)

2. Your cake business has taken off and you now supply more than 100 cakes per week to 5 retail stores in the city. Due to the availability of shelf space, the retailers have given you additional types of cake to produce and provided you with monthly orders, which have been aggregated to help you:
It takes 45 minutes per cake in the oven (which is your constraint) where you can only do 1 cake at a time. So, 0.75hrs x 400 = 300 hours oven time. It takes 1 hour to change from one type of cake to another, so doing these in the batches shown would require 9 changeovers.
a. How would you plan your production? (what principles would you use?)
b. What are the implications to the retailers?
c. What changes would you suggest?
Discuss Level Smoothing (Heijunka) and potential use of Glenday Sieve. “Every batch every week” as an approach “ synchronize JIT with customer. Implications include Throughput versus Inventory. Discuss “wastes” and also SMED to deal with changeovers. (max 1000 words)

3. The Covid-19 pandemic has exposed many weaknesses in our healthcare system, especially hospital processes. If you were assigned to help the Head of one government hospital to improve performance, what approach would you take given the principles, processes, tools and techniques you were exposed to during your Operations and Supply Chain Management Sessions. How would the Ferdows “Sandcone model” help you with your approach? (max 1000 words)

Describe the insights from the Sandcone model”. How will this help you ( What key metrics would you consider to measure any improvements. Take the patients view – how would they experience non-value adding activities? What are the critical to quality measures ?
Would you digitise anything as a first step

4. Why are hospitals a good example of the importance of 5S? Using the pictures below describe your answer by considering: (max 750 words)
a. The 5S process itself applied to the environment
b. Discipline
c. Cleaning Efficiency
d. Making Work Easy
e. Why do 5S implementations fail?

5. Using Laszlo’s hierarchy for Sustainability describe how lean principles, tools and techniques can be used to progress its sustainability maturity of its supply chain operations. Max (750 words)