Question 1 (25 marks)

Discuss the contents of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa. Explain the challenges related to its implementation.

Question 2 (25 marks)

The traditional categorisation of international human rights can be traced back to the era of the French Revolution.
2.1 Discuss the traditional classification of human rights. Explain the main features of the first and second generations of human rights. (20)
2.2 Explain what is meant by ‘collective rights’ in the context of human rights. (5)

Question 3 (25 marks)

Read the case study below and answer the questions that follow.

African Union gives 15-day ultimatum to Niger junta to end regime but soldiers seek continuity
NIAMEY, Niger (AP) — The African Union has issued a 15-day ultimatum to the junta in Niger to reinstall the country’s democratically elected government just as the coup leaders met with senior civil servants to discuss how they would run the country and as the U.S. and the European Union threatened sanctions against the regime.
Source: AP news 29 July 2023, available at: coup-tchiani-bazoum-ecowas-2ad1d7e269a5f1c15e9b8b96d50fe3ee

3.1 In the context of the facts in the table above, discuss the mandate of the African Commission under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. (5)
3.2 Explain the international legal rules applicable to the use of ‘collective force’ by regional arrangements or agencies, such as the African Union and ECOWAS, if they were to invoke the use of force against the military junta in Niger. (20)

Answers to Above Questions on Human Rights Law

Answer 1: The protocol to the African culture on the rights of women in Africa is all about protecting the rights of women across the entire African continent. This protocol also emphasizes on eliminating any kind of gender based discrimination and inequality. The important contents of this proposal include civil and political rights for women, economic rights for women, social and cultural rights, health rights, legal rights etc. There are many challenges as well in its proper implementation which includes lack of political will, lack of resources, legal and institutional challenges, lack of awareness etc.


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