Maria is an informal hawker and she sells her baked goods on a busy street in the CBD. She only accepts cash for any item purchased and has not included VAT in her sales.

She would like to expand her business and rent a small shop which must be registered as a trading company and registered for Value Added Tax (VAT) with the South African Revenue Services (SARS). Maria will sell some baked goods which are VAT exempt and others that incur VAT. VAT is calculated at 15%. Maria will purchase a computer and printer to run your program on.

The following items are VAT free. Everything else must have VAT added:
• Brown bread (R10)
• Traditional steamed bread (R5)

The other baked goods in Maria’s bakery are:
• Scones (R15)
• Biscuits (R20)
• Pies (R15)

Since you are on your way to becoming a promising young programmer and you are also a friend of Maria’s son, she has decided to contract you to develop a new system to:
• Identify if the items purchased must include VAT or not;
• Calculate the VAT she needs to pay to SARS;
• The total amount payable by the customer.

Question 1 (Marks: 10)

Explain the process that you will be following when designing and developing the system.

Note: For this question, it is not sufficient to merely list the phase of the program development cycle, you also need to briefly mention what will happen during that phase in relation to the bakery’s new system.

Question 2

The system to be developed for Maria needs to produce one of the following slips for a customer once the sale has been concluded.

VAT exempt VAT added
Maria’s Bakery Maria’s Bakery
Product Price Product Price Brown Bread R 10 Biscuits R 20
Total due: R10 Total due: R23

Q.2.1 Write the pseudocode that will produce a slip similar to the one illustrated at the beginning of the question. Your solution should satisfy the following requirements:
• Declare and initialise variables. (3)
• Input the item purchased. (2)
• Input the price of the item. (2)
• Determine if VAT must be added or not. (5)
• Calculate VAT at 15% if it is an item that incurs VAT. (4)
• If the item does not incur VAT then the VAT amount must be zero. (2)
• Output the slip in the format specified above. (5)
• Use Camel Casing for your variable names. (2) (25)

Q.2.2 The solution must make use of good programming practices. (5)

Q.2.3 All of your solutions should be structured. Explain why your solution can be
considered a structured solution. (10)

Question 3 (Marks: 30)

You have deployed the system for Maria and all is going well. She is impressed with the new system’s capability and how easy it is to use. Because of this, she has asked you to modify the system so that a customer can purchase up to three items and can automatically calculate discount for the customer based on the total amount of their purchase. Maria has asked that the discount amount be indicated on the slip as well as the amount due by the customer after discount has been applied. VAT will be calculated on the discounted amount. Discounts are awarded based on the following amounts:

Sales Amount Discount
R0 – R20 0%
More than R20 5%

Modify the pseudocode in Q.2.1 so that the solution will satisfy the following requirements:
• The solution should make use of a case structure to determine the percentage discount
that the customer is to receive.
• Once the percentage discount has been determined, the discount amount should be calculated.

The slip produced should be amended so that it shows the total purchase amount of the items before deductions have been applied, the amount of discount the customer receives, VAT as well as the total amount due by the customer after the discount and VAT has been applied.

Discount applied and VAT added
Maria’s Bakery
Products Bought Price
Scones R 15
Biscuits R 20
Total before discount R 35
Discount – 5% R 1.75
Total after discount R 33.25
VAT after discount R 4.99
Total due: R 38.24

Question 4 (Marks: 20)

Draw a flowchart for the final solution (Question 4). This flowchart will be included in the user
documentation you will give to Maria once the system has been completed.

Answers to Above Questions on Programming

Answer 1: In the given case scenario of Maria’s Bakery, a specific process will be followed in designing and developing the system. Some of the important steps in the process of designing the system are indicated as follows:
1) Collecting information: This is the first step that I would follow in designing a system for Maria, and in this step I will collect information regarding the products sold by Maria including their prices, and decision related to the value added tax to be considered in deciding the sales prices.
2) Prototype design: This is the second step that I will follow which will include the designing of a prototype based on the information collected about the business of Maria.


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