Question 1:

Religion, according to Emile Durkheim, reinforces solidarity among a community of believers. Believers’ beliefs connect them to what they perceive as sacred, that which is to be revered. Religious practices and rituals are essential elements of demonstrating reverence and, for many religions, are essential for salvation. Practically, ritual also reinforces the solidarity of the group and the truthfulness of belief. As such, for true believers, religion serves as a central element of their individual and collective identity.
Religious freedom is well established as a human right, as stated in the UN Declaration of Human Rights as well as in regional declarations. Because of its importance in the lives of individuals and in international conventions, religious freedom is nearly universally recognized as a civil right in national constitutions. This is a hallmark achievement of cultural globalization. Despite this widespread recognition, complete religious freedom is still rare. Governments have uneasy relationships with religion, and as a result it often serves as a source of social unrest and conflict
Chirico.J.(2018), Global Problems, Global Solutions: Prospects for a Better World. SAGE Publishing.

In an essay response, investigate the concept of religious freedom as a human right specifically in relation to Christianity in Palestine.

Despite international conventions and national constitutions, there is no country yet that provides women with opportunity to reach their full potential. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5 calls for gender equality and empowerment of all women and girls. However, due to women’s pivotal role in family and community, their empowerment is essential in achieving many other goals, especially in hunger, health, and education. From sex selection before birth to unequal access to health care, education, and paid employment, to domestic violence, kidnapping, forced marriage, and rape, to punitive practices that demand death for the slightest infractions, women remain captives of ideologies and cultural attitudes with deep roots in patriarchal societies. These same attitudes, rooted in the doctrine and dogma of sex and gender, deny homosexual and transgender individuals their natural rights and subject them to cruel and unusual, formal, and informal, punishment all over the world.
Chirico.J.(2018), Global Problems, Global Solutions: Prospects for a Better World. SAGE Publishing.

Comment on the direct impact that gender inequality and the lack of human development has on Gender-Based Violence in South Africa.

Question 2

North and West Africa: INTERPOL report highlights human trafficking for organ removal
A new report from INTERPOL assesses the problem of trafficking in human beings for organ removal (THBOR), which is driven largely by the global shortage in organs for ethical transplant. While organ trafficking exists in all regions of the world, it is of particular concern in North and West Africa where impoverished communities and displaced populations are at greater risk of exploitation.
The strategic assessment report, produced as part of Project ENACT, provides insight and analysis into the issues, to enable law enforcement agencies in North and West Africa to devise the appropriate responses.
Transplant tourism
Organized crime groups are known to be behind trafficking in human beings for organ removal, drawn by the substantial profits that can be made.
Information suggests a wide spectrum of actors are involved in organ trafficking in North and West Africa with connections to the medical sector in countries from Africa and beyond, notably in Asia and the Middle East.
Trafficking in human organs can be done only in the framework of complex networks, due to the required skills (medical specialists, surgeons, nurses), logistics (matching compatible patients and donors), and healthcare facilities (analytical laboratories, clinics, operating rooms).
The report shows probable links between transplant tourism – where a patient travels abroad to buy an organ for illegal transplant – and THBOR in North and West Africa. Either in the context of transplants performed in North Africa with organs illegally sourced in the region, or transplants done elsewhere with illegally sourced organs from nationals from North and West Africa.
Vulnerable communities
Organized criminal groups profit from the desperation of the unemployed, migrants, asylum seekers and refugees to coerce them into selling an organ. Victims of human trafficking for sexual and labor purposes also find themselves at additional risk.
The techniques used for the recruitment and control of the victims are the same as those used for other types of human trafficking, such as promises of job opportunities abroad, as well as the use of threats and violence.
Most often, victim-donors receive a smaller amount of the money than had been agreed with the recruiter or broker, and in some cases they may not get any of the promised payment. Many victim-donors have suffered post-operative complications and health issues.
The socioeconomic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to fuel THBOR as it will likely be easier for brokers to coerce vulnerable individuals to sell an organ to improve their economic conditions. This is exacerbated by the fact that legal organ donations, and therefore transplants, have suffered major decreases since the outbreak of COVID-19.
Actionable intelligence
“While trafficking in human beings for organ removal is not a new phenomenon, it is underreported due to the clandestine nature of the crime, combined with a lack of awareness by law enforcement agencies and the deficiency of information sharing channels between the medical and police sectors,” said Cyril Gout, INTERPOL’s Direct of Operational Support and Analysis.
“This strategic assessment provides INTERPOL member countries with actionable strategic intelligence on THBOR in North and West Africa and will further facilitate law enforcement cooperation among the countries affected,” added Mr. Gout.

The report supports law enforcement agencies to set priorities, so as to identify potential victims, investigate trafficking in human being cases that are motivated by the organ trade, and target the criminal networks that facilitate THBOR.
Project ENACT
Project ENACT (Enhancing Africa’s Response to Transnational Organized Crime) seeks to assist police in Africa to adopt proactive strategies to combat organized crime threats, facilitate information exchange and enhance investigative skills.
Project ENACT is funded by the European Union and implemented by INTERPOL and the Institute for Security Studies, in partnership with the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.
Extract: Interpol International.2021. North and West Africa: Interpol report highlights Human trafficking for organ removal.
Using the prescribed textbook and the extract above, discuss the social impact of organ trafficking in developing countries. Consider feasible solutions to this global problem.
Identify and explain the correlation between drug trafficking and terrorism within a global context.

Question 3: 

Discuss the social impact of water pollution in South African communities. Look at possible solutions to address the issue.

Question 4: 

“Migrant” encompasses a variety of people who differ widely in their circumstances. Economic, political, social, environmental, and physical insecurities push people from their usual residences. What the migrants have in common is that they left their homes, presumably, for a better life elsewhere—some elsewhere in their homeland, some in other countries. Some leave voluntarily; others have little or no choice.
Extract: Chirico.J.(2018), Global Problems, Global Solutions: Prospects for a Better World. SAGE Publishing.

4.1 In an essay response, highlight the factors that contribute to the social change brought on by migration.

Get answers on above questions on Sociology

Answer 1: Religious freedom as a human right is defined as the right of humans to hold their own religious belief without any interference of state or other individuals. The individuals are free to exercise their own religious beliefs, or no religious belief at all, and it is completely up to them. In relation to Christianity in Palestine, religious freedom is somewhat complex because palestinian have enjoyed religious freedom in the past, and Christianity has also had a long history in Palestine. Despite this, there are challenges to the religious freedom of Palestinian Christians because of the ongoing Israel-Palestinian conflict.

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