There are two main approaches to curriculum design:(1) the product approach and, (2)the process approach.As stated by van Oort (2018), “product approaches entail, among other things, clear goals and authoritative, prescriptive learning content. The product approach to curriculum design views knowledge as given and absolute, and the teachers and learners have little to no influence when the curriculum is being determined” (p.257). She further states that“according to researchers, product approaches to curriculum design do not meet the demands of the 21st century, seeing that the modern information-orientated world needs a curriculum which will guide learners to unlock and evaluate fast-changing knowledge” (van Oort, 2018, p. 258). A process approach to curriculum design on the other hand,“entail, among other things, a more descriptive curriculum which comes into being in the classroom and provides teachers with more space to act as curriculators” (van Oort, 2018, p.257).

With reference to the above quotation, write an academic essay in which you respond to the following:

  • Identify and discuss the ideology, content,and assessment with regard to the process approach put forward by Lawrence Stenhouse.
  • Using relevant literature and examples,explain why the product approach (as advocated by Ralph Tyler) would not meet the demands of the 21st century in the South African context.
  • Compare and contrast the two main approaches to curriculum design, i.e. the product and the process.      

Answers to Above Questions

The product approach and process approach are the important ones in the process of curriculum design, as they both cover different areas of learning. The main focus in case of product approach is on writing tasks in which the learner imitates the models provided by the teacher, whereas in case of process approach, the focus is on identifying steps in creating a piece of work. In this essay, the analysis focuses on the ideology and content of process approach as provided by Lawrence Stenhouse and product approach by Ralph Tyler. A comparative analysis is also performed in respect to both these approaches to curriculum design…..

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