Question 1 
In your own words, explain your understanding of the field of criminology and its applications in your work environment. (10)
Consider if the motivations to establish minimum sentences in South Africa have the desired outcome. Refer to the recent murder statistics to prove your point.
Criminology is expanding its borders and considers cybercrime as a newer crime. Explain the three (3) categories of delinquent sub-cultures postulated by Cloward and Ohlin and indicate which category of sub-culture will be most suitable to explain cybercrime. (10)
Question 2 
2.1. Explain the social disorganisation theory of Shaw and McKay. (15)
2.2 Apply the social disorganisation theory of Shaw and McKay and debate if this theory has the potential to explain crime in Thohoyandou, a South African city in the Limpopo province. (15)
Crime in Thohoyandou: Incidents related to vigilantism in which people take the law into their own hands are experienced. These often led to the destruction of property and, in some instances, people getting killed or injured. Mob justice also leads to murder. The communities of Ha-Gumbu village in the Masisi area torched police vehicles and set 15 houses on fire after the traditional leader of the village was gunned down in front of his house. The high crime rate, especially in the Thohoyandou policing area, was becoming a serious concern. It was highlighted that police need to adapt to the activities of the day and keep up with the new technology and the needs of the rapidly growing community and businesses. They need to create a watertight environment that would not allow gaps and divisions between the police and the community. Such gaps may allow criminals to take advantage of the broader community and victimise them.
Question 3 
Read the following Abstract and answer Question 3:
This abstract is based on the Sebati murder case that occurred in 2016 in Brits, South Africa, when four people, one a police officer, were killed by two men who were hired by a family member. Students can read more about this case online, but it is not required. The relevant facts applicable to answer this question will be addressed in the Abstract. The case is still in court. Therefore, the focus is only on the features of the murder sub-types.
Within a few seconds, four people were gunned down at the same house. One of the victims was the father, a well-respected police officer. The other three were the mother, a daughter of 22 years old and a younger brother, six years old. One member of the family, who was outside at the time of the attack, 15-year-old Onthatile, suffered a wound in the leg but survived the attack. Several questions on why the attack took place were debated by the family: has it to do with the father’s job as a police officer? Has it been a burglary – but the attackers did not take any valuable possessions? Attacking two women and a child without touching their bodies? The police suspected the shooting to be the conduct of a gang and tried to find the perpetrators, but every lead ended in a dead end.
Five years later, Onthatile then 20 years old, came forward and confessed that she had hired distant family members and paid them R100,000 each from her inheritance from her parents.
Apply the characteristics of the different sub-types of murder included in the CML101 syllabus and explain, with reference to the Abstract, three (3) sub-types of murder this case is an example of. Your answer must comply with the requirements of an essay.
Guidelines and mark allocation:
Formulate a title (1)
Introduction: inform the reader what the question is all about (1)
Definition of key concepts: criminal, victim and murder (6)
Describe the three sub-types of murder you have selected and explain the three sub-types based on the characteristics of each sub-type, supported by examples from the Abstract.
(10 x 3 = 30)
Answers to Above Questions on Criminology
Answer 1: The field of criminology is best defined as understanding the area of crime and criminal activities and measures undertaken to restrict the occurrence of such criminal activities through the criminal justice system. The field of study takes into consideration the assessment of numerous factors such as social, psychological, economical and environmental with the objective of understanding the nature and behaviour of individuals and their motive behind committing crimes and the ways in which they are being restricted through the criminal justice system. In respect to my work environment at….
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