Philosophers have not agreed on the source of ethics and neither have people. Even though the notions of good and bad are so close to us, they are still the hardest to define. Perhaps this is why the extensive analysis of the matter draws us further away from the source of ethics. There are many reasons for a person to do good to his fellow humans. Only one thing is certain: self-knowledge is a good starting point to begin with. If someone wants to start dealing with philosophy, ethics is the best place to initialize inquiry, since ethics was and still is the most important subject for our everyday lives.


1.1 Describe and explain factors that develop ethical awareness and sensibilities. (15)
1.2 Identify and discuss sources of ethics from the philosophical points of origin. (15) QUESTION TWO [15] Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) is generally acknowledged as the creator of Classical Utilitarianism, which holds that pleasure is ultimately the only good and pain is the only evil. Goodness is defined as human wellbeing, so what benefits are good and what harms are evil? Utilitarianism contends that something is morally good to the extent that it produces a greater balance of pleasure over pain for the largest number of people involved – the greatest good of the greatest number.

Consider and evaluate the recent ban on smoking in South Africa from a utilitarian point of view. QUESTION THREE [20] Evaluate the key ethical issues in the 4Ps model of the marketing mix.

The Deontological approach Justice and Fairness deals with equality and is a crucial aspect of morality. Justice and Fairness are concerned with comparative treatment given to members of a group. It is usually divided into various categories. Discuss these categories.


Provide an outline of the ethical theories (deontological and teleological) and ethical approaches that help managers make ethical decisions. For each theory or approach, give an example of its application.

Answers to Above Questions on Accounting

Answer 1: There are many factors that affect the ethical awareness and sensibilities of an individual. Some of the important factors include the social and cultural values that exist within the environment to which an individual is directly exposed. It also include the family background and parental guidelines received by the individual, and the education exposure also plays a major role in affecting the ethical awareness and sensibility of the individual.


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